A couple of weeks ago, we discussed how all students, particularly those who are struggling, benefit from the provision of explicit instruction (Baker, Gersten, & Lee, 2002; Carnine, 1997; Doabler et al., 2012; Witzel, Mercer, & Miller, 2003). Van de Walle (2013) characterizes explicit instruction as highlystructured, teacherled instruction on a specific strategy. He explains how this approach can help uncover or make overt the thinking strategies that support mathematical problem solving for students with disabilities.
We started a list of the methods and elements of explicit instruction. To continue this series of blogs, here are some additional elements of explicit instruction as well as examples and/or steps to carrying out these recommendations.
Beginning each lesson with a clear statement of the objectives and goals for that lesson so that students know not only what they are going to learn but why it is important and how it relates to other skills and strategies they have already learned. For example:

Reviewing prerequisite knowledge and skills prior to starting instruction that includes a review of relevant information not only to ensure that students’ have the prior knowledge and skills needed to learn the skill being taught in the lesson but also to provide students an opportunity to link the new skills with other related skills and increase their sense of success. For example:

Modeling the desired skill or strategy clearly to demonstrate for students what they will be expected to do so and can see firsthand what a model of proficient performance looks like. When completing these models, think aloud for students so that each step of the strategy or skill you perform is clear and to clarify the decisionmaking processes needed to complete the procedure or solve the problem. For example:

Providing guided and supported practice by regulating the difficulty of practice opportunities from easier to more challenging and providing higher levels of guidance and support initially that is gradually decreased as students demonstrate success. For example:

Baker, S. K., Gersten, R., & Lee, D. (2002). A synthesis of empirical research on teaching mathematics to lowachieving students. The Elementary School Journal, 103, 5173.
Carnine, D. W. (1997). Instructional design in mathematics for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30, 130141.
Doabler, C. T., Cary, M. S., Jungjohann, K., Clarke, B., Fien, H., Baker, S., Smolkowski, K., & Chard, D. (2012). Enhancing core mathematics instruction for students at risk for mathematics disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44, 4857.
Van De Walle, J.A., Karp, K.S., & BayWilliams, J.M. (2013). Elementary and middle school mathematics: Teaching developmentally, 8th edition. Boston: Pearson.
Witzel, B. S., Mercer, C. D., & Miller, M. D. (2003). Teaching algebra to students with learning difficulties: An investigation of an explicit instruction model. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, 121131.
No comments:
Post a Comment
Please comment.